Who Is Really Responsible For the Summer Slide?
Today's post is written by frequent Finding Common Ground guest blogger Lisa Westman. Lisa is an instructional coach specializing in differentiation for Skokie School District 73.5 in suburban Chicago. She taught middle school gifted humanities, ELA, and SS for twelve years before becoming a coach.
School let out in the Chicago suburbs just over a week ago. While I have never been a proponent of the "last days of school countdown" and much prefer Twitter movements like #lastbell, I must admit, I like the time off. I appreciate waking up in the morning without an alarm and drinking coffee from a real mug.
Similarly, my children (ages 11 and 8) have enjoyed sleeping in and playing outside. It wasn't until day 6 of our time off together that we did something "educational." We visited the library where we greeted with a large poster reminding us to read and avoid the dreaded "summer slide."
What is the summer slide?
The summer slide refers to the phenomena of lost academic growth by students over the summer months when they are not actively engaged at school. On average, students lose one to three months of learning during the summer, with students from low-income homes being disproportionately affected (ASCD).
There are a plethora of recommendations for minimizing the impact of the summer slide. Most suggestions, including those listed in a recent article in Forbes Magazine, focus on two aspects of the slide, one preventative and one reactionary:
what parents/guardians can do to avoid the summer slide
what educators can/need to do to fix the damage done over the summer when school resumes in the fall
Why are we placing the burden of preventing the summer slide on parents?
As an educator, I have insight into what my children should be doing over the summer and I have the luxury of time off to do things like read with them. Yet, to be honest, I don't assess whether or not our activities help their retention nor do I want to do so. This leads me to wonder about the majority of parents who aren't trained educators or who don't have time off from work. Are they really the right party to rely on to prevent the summer slide?
There are people, like Geoffrey Canada, who say the idea of no school in the summer is asinine altogether:
"every 10 years they reproduce the same study. It says exactly the same thing: Poor kids lose ground in the summertime. The system decides you can't run schools in the summer...who makes up those rules? -- I went the Harvard Ed School. I thought I knew something. They said it was the agrarian calendar, -- but let me tell you why that doesn't make sense....anyone knows if you farm, you don't plant crops in July and August. You plant them in the spring" (Ted Talk, Our Failing Schools. Enough is Enough, 2013).
However, considering that a systemic change (like mandated year round school) could take years to legislate, we ought to focus less on what parents and students should do to prevent the summer slide and focus more on what we (educators) can control. The questions we should be asking ourselves are:
What are we doing during the school year to ensure that the growth our students make is permanent?
What are we (inadvertently) doing to make students resistant to learning in the summer?
And, I propose that the following practices (or lack thereof) are unwittingly contributing to our students' summer slide:
Reliance on Bells and Schedules
During the nine months we have students in our classrooms, we consistently send them subliminal messages that learning is fixed and structured, rather than fluid and ubiquitous. This is not malicious, but true nonetheless.
We offer our students instruction in the form of "periods" or "blocks" which typically rely on bells to indicate when learning starts and stops. Students learn reading from 8-9, and then they learn science from 9-10. And, while many schools claim to teach literacy in all classes, or engage in interdisciplinary learning, on the whole, these connections are not clear to students. Students struggle to transfer information learned in one class to another class, let alone from year to another.
What we need to do is recognize, vocalize, and celebrate the fact that the content, skills, and concepts we cover in our classrooms just scratch the surface of what there is to be learned. We need to focus on building students' metacognitive awareness so they recognize when and where they are learning, so they can self-identify what strategies to use to best understand the new information to which they are constantly exposed. By doing so, even when students are at home "playing video games" all summer, we give them the greatest opportunity to learn something from playing these games (plotline of a story, digital imagery, strategizing) and make connections.
Incorrectly "using" formative assessment
In Formative Assessment 2.0, Larry Ainsworth offers Stiggins' explanation of formative assessment as something that, "happens while learning is still underway. These are the assessments that we conduct throughout teaching and learning to diagnose student needs, plan for next steps in instruction, provide students with feedback they can use..."
When done correctly, formative assessment (sometimes referred to as assessment for learning) informs both the teacher and the student of whether or not concepts/skills have been consistently mastered. The consistent "loss" of skills or knowledge over the summer months is indicative of improperly assessing students' progress/mastery throughout the year. Furthermore, this loss suggests the focus is on moving students as a whole, rather than focusing on individual student growth which would require the use of formative assessment evidence to differentiate for their needs.
Perhaps, if we truly shift our focus to assessment for learning rather than assessment of learning, and resume teaching our students where they actually left-off the year before, the gaps will not be as cavernous.
Making reading a punishment
If (as advertised) reading is the key to preventing the summer slide; the one thing all educators must do is curate a love of reading.
Unfortunately, however, we tend to do just the opposite and systemize reading. For many students, reading is seen as a chore, a measure of compliance, or worse, something it is ok to "lie" about (read more about this here or here).
With this in mind, it is no wonder that students choose to not read in the summer. They need a break because reading feels strenuous and stressful.
Rather than assign reading in it of itself, we need to pose relevant and provocative questions which will naturally compel students to read. Instead of assigning 20 minutes of reading a night, we can ask students questions about what they read outside of class (online, in books, in magazines, even subtitles) and accept that reading takes on many forms.
When we expose students to reading in a variety of forms and recognize learning from reading of any source (Wow, that's pretty cool. where did you learn/read about that, I've never heard that before? Can you show me that?) it's pretty incredible how much more students are willing to read.
In The End
Until school runs year-round, we may never fully eradicate the summer slide. But, we can certainly do our best to ensure that what our students learn is permanent and not fleeting. What are your thoughts on the summer slide?
Questions about this post? Connect with Lisa on Twitter.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.