Rethinking the High School Credential
Most American youth don't get what they need from high school. There are lots of reasons --some economic, some cultural, some educational. Two root problems are how we've defined the finish line (graduation requirements) and how we communicate success (transcript).
For 125 years we've managed and recorded the high school experience as a series of courses and grades. It's a record of time and activity but not a very good measure of knowledge, skills and dispositions. It doesn't capture experiences or work products that provide evidence of growth and accomplishment.
The number and type of credit required (defined by local and state graduation requirements) guides course taking. Because it defines the minimum expectations for compulsory education, it reflects a social contract and equity promise.
Standards-based reforms of the last quarter century attempted to connect high school exit requirements to entrance requirements for pathways that lead to living wages with long-term opportunity. Unfortunately, by simply adding more English, math, and science credit requirements, these well-intentioned reforms reinforced time-based controls and traditional content-based courses.
In short, there are five problems that result from using credit-based requirements, test-based accountability and a transcript limited to these data points:
- Discipline-based course requirements block interdisciplinary study.
- Test-based accountability reduces the number of extended challenges, performance-based assessment and public products.
- Limited (and usually paper-based) transcripts list course credits and test scores but don't help students share personal bests, unique accomplishments and capabilities, and evidence of growth on career readiness indicators.
- Graduation expectations aligned with college entrance requirements may work for traditional disciplines but are not well suited for new earn and learn ladders in career and technical education (for example, robotics and advanced manufacturing).
- Narrow focus on course and credit requirements limits emphasis on the importance of out-of-school learning (for example work, service, and civic-based learning). There are few if any opportunities to gain credit for out of school or informal learning (learning fractions on Khan Academy, taking calculus on a MOOC, learning work-ready skills on LRNG, starting one's on business or cause).
- Outcomes. What's the best way to express desired student learning goals? What are the best outcome frameworks? To what extent should desired outcomes vary by career pathway or postsecondary plans?
- Evidence.What forms of evidence should communities accept of learning and growth? Micro-credentials and badges seem like a cool approach but how to ensure consistent quality?
- Transcript. How could schools help students summarize their capabilities, accomplishments, and aspirations in ways that benefit them and receivers (especially colleges and employers)?
- Networks. How could schools be encouraged to work together around common expectations, assessments, and supports?
- Equity. If diploma systems become more modular and flexible, how to ensure equitable access to career pathways? How to improve guidance to support successful experiences and contributions?
After I talked to place-based education expert Greg Smith, he woke up in the middle of the night and penned this beautiful list of dispositions he'd like to see cultivated:
- Do as little harm as possible
- Care for others and the Earth
- Pay attention
- Cooperate rather than dominate
- Lead when needed, follow when appropriate
- Recognize and and avoid the attractions of greed, hatred, and ignorance
For more, see:
- Proposal for an Innovation Diploma
- How Better Transcripts Will Improve College Admissions, Employment, and Licensing
- How to Promote College Readiness: A Washington Case Study
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